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Additional resources for Advances in Artificial Life. Darwin Meets von Neumann: 10th European Conference, ECAL 2009, Budapest, Hungary, September 13-16, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Part I
An SU that produces a TF (SUTF ) encodes all parameters related to the TF, such as the aﬃnity value, the decay rate Dic , the diﬀusion rate Dif , as well as the amount of the TF to be produced: A=β 2 1+ e−20·f ·α − 1, (3) where f and β are both encoded in the SUTF . A TF produced by a SU can be partly internal and partly external. To determine how much of a produced TF is external, a percentage (pex ∈ (0, 1)) is also encoded in the corresponding gene. Thus, pex · A is the amount of external TF and (1 − pex ) · A is that of the internal TF.
01 ensures that there will be some input current, even when the target angle, φ, is 0. Note that this sensory mechanism is partially based on the exponentiated bearing-based tracking model employed in . Proprioceptive feedback mechanism. The proprioceptive mechanism is based on a notion of stretch receptor activity, for example, that found in the leech . Also, as with the sensory system outlined above, the proprioceptive mechanism is exponentiated taking the amount of side spring distension as input (difference in length of spring from resting length).
Before each division, a copy of the genome is made. Symmetry-breaking mechanisms cause the differential expression of the genes in the descendant cells. However, the embryo is shaped not only by the fact that different gene products are present at different concentrations in different cells. Physical interactions between the cell components, as well as between the cells and their environment result in emergent phenomena that allow bridging the overwhelming discrepancy between the amount of information encoded in the genome and the complex structure of the organism.