Download After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence by James Bailey PDF

By James Bailey

Through the 1st fifty years of the pc revolution, scientists were attempting to software digital circuits to strategy details an identical means people do. Doing so has reassured us all that underlying each new desktop strength, regardless of how miraculously speedy or complicated, are human suggestion techniques and common sense. yet state-of-the-art desktop scientists are coming to determine that digital circuits relatively are alien, that the adaptation among the human brain and laptop power isn't purely one in every of measure (how fast), yet of kind(how). the writer means that desktops “think” most sensible whilst their “thoughts” are allowed to emerge from the interaction of thousands of tiny operations all interacting with one another in parallel. Why then, if pcs carry to the desk such very assorted strengths and weaknesses, are we nonetheless attempting to software them to imagine like people? a piece that levels generally over the historical past of rules from Galileo to Newton to Darwin but is simply as cozy within the state of the art international of parallel processing that's at this very second yielding a brand new kind of intelligence, After idea describes why the genuine machine age is simply beginning.

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Extra info for After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence

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The same is true of the genetic recombination of chromosomes. Wondrous results have emerged, but over millions of years. Neither were viable candidates for computing before computing became electronic. Now, more and more scientists are heeding the advice of the physicist Stanislaw Ulam: "Ask not what mathematics can do for biology. Ask what biology can do for mathematics. "27 In the abstract, nobody is likely to quarrel with Ulam. The reality, however, is new enough and different enough to be scary.

He did not, however, miss the new software technology of the period. He was at the very forefront of it. While Regiomontanus was a young man working as the royallibrarian in Budapest, Constantinople fell to the Turks. Large numbers of Greek scholars made their way west, carrying ancient manuscripts, some unknown in Christian Europe at the time. Regiomontanus, in Hungary, was the first to intercept and study this new wave of software. Among the works was a book about arithmetic by Diophantus, unique among Greek works for its focus on numerical manipulations rather than geometric ones.

There were important problems even within early astronomy, however, that could not be solved in diagrams but could be solved with the art of the thing. " Today, the orthodoxy of numbers and equations is at least as strong as the orthodoxy of circles and diagrams was in Columbus's time. But once again there are problems, even in the classical domains of forces and mutual attractions, that cannot be computed with the orthodox approaches but can with the art of the tangled web. For example, drug designers need to predict how a string of molecules will curl up into a protein.

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