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By T. Royama

A wisdom of animal inhabitants dynamics is vital for the correct administration of normal assets and the surroundings. This e-book, now on hand in paperback, develops simple strategies and a rigorous method for the research of animal inhabitants dynamics to spot the underlying mechanisms.

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Example text

0 I ! 10 Correlations between the log reproductive rate R, and log density X, of the unregulated population series in Fig. 8b. Graph a: correlation based on the whole series. Graphs b to e: correlations in four shorter sections. The sets (correlation coefficient. 40. 73. 03) in graphs a, b to e, respectively. The above argument shows that a negative correlation between reproductive rate and population density would neither necessarily indicate the involvement of a density-dependent factor nor would it necessarily imply regulation of the process.

7), that is, conditional on the resource availability. 24) where R t is, as before, the log reproductive rate over the tth generation (cf. Fig. 2); X is, in general, a set of log population densities (X" X t - 1 , X t - 2 , •• • ), the basic elements of the measures (parameters) of the density-dependent factors; and Z represents the set of measures of densityindependent factors. The notation f, the usual mathematical notation for a 'function', translates these sets of the measures of the factors involved into reproductive rate and, thus, its ecological connotation is the 'effects' of the set of factors, manifesting themselves in fecundity, mortality or dispersal rate.

The production of some resource may be governed by the density of the animal, as III a predator-prey interaction. This topic will be discussed in Chapter 4. 2, I remarked that my concept of density-dependent and density-independent factors differs from common usage. I now discuss the pragmatic signficance of the difference. 1 Connotations of 'density dependence' The concept of dependence carries wide and narrow connotations. In the wide sense, it refers to a statistical correlation and, in the narrow sense, to a causal connection.

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