By Julia A. Clancy-Smith
Julia Clancy-Smith's exceptional examine brings us a outstanding view of North African background from the point of view of the North Africans themselves. concentrating on the spiritual ideals and political activities of Muslim elites and their fans in Algeria and Tunisia, she presents a richly designated research of resistance and lodging to colonial rule.Clancy-Smith demonstrates the continuities among the eras of Turkish and French rule in addition to the significance of local ties between elite households in defining Saharan political cultures. She rejects the placement that Algerians and Tunisians have been constantly sufferers of western colonial aggression, arguing as a substitute that Muslim notables understood the surface international and have been particularly in a position to manipulating the big alterations happening round them.
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Extra resources for Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800-1904) (Comparative Studies on Muslim Societies)
62] Thus, instead of the periodic suq staggered over a seven-day cycle, the large oases boasted daily markets, although naturally the Friday market was the most active. Those held during the winter date harvest attracted the largest and most diverse clienteles resulting in the highest volume of exchanges. id=d0e443 (14 of 18) [2/10/2003 1:35:29 AM] Rebel and Saint In addition, annual fairs were as significant to the economy and sociocultural life of the oasis cities as they were in other regions of North Africa.
In contrast to the western province, urban and rural communities were more intimately linked due to the structure of the province's ecology and economy. Some leading tribal shaykhs from the south or the mountains maintained residences in the city.  Unlike the Kabylia, the Rahmaniyya's original locus, Constantine was the domain par excellence of the scholar and the faqih (Muslim jurist); here the Islam of the countryside fused with urban, mosque-centered Islam. In 1830 the city boasted over a hundred mosques, madrasas, zawaya, and other religious establishments; the courses offered in the principal mosques drew large popular audiences as well as those versed in the religious sciences.
69] In the precolonial era, however, temporary labor movements did not (as far as we know) create conditions leading to enhanced politicization but rather served to reinforce the traditional order of things in the oases.  Present as well in the larger oasis cities, such as Biskra and Tuzar, were institutions of Islamic jurisprudence, administered by prominent local ulama, which served to integrate the community into the wider Dar al-Islam and provincial religious scholars into an international moral confraternity of defenders of the holy law (shari'a ).